Spanish - Lesson 3 - Conjugation of the verb ser

Conjugation of the Verb ser - To Be

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Here is a chart showing the conjugation of the verb ser, meaning "to be".

Person Singular Plural
First soy
I am
we are
Second eres
you are
you are
Third es
he/it/she/one is
they are

Here are some more vocabulary words. Once again, if you'd rather learn these words as part of a dialog, you can simply go on to the next lesson.

una madre a mom / mum, mother
quién (sing.) / quiénes (pl.) who
(nosotros) somos we are
(ustedes) son you (pl.) are
mi (sing.) / mis (pl.) my
un padre a father / parent
por supuesto of course
él es he is
elle est she is
(ellos) son they are
abuelo (m.) / abuela (f.) / abuelos (pl.) grandfather / grandmother / grandparents
tú eres you (sing. familiar) are
(yo) soy I am
una princesa a princess

Additional Notes

Unlike English and many other languages, there are two verbs meaning "to be" in Spanish. The specific rules will be descibed later, but in general the verb "ser" is used to describe a fundamental state of a noun ("I am a boy"), whereas another verb "estar" is used in general for describing temporary state and locations ("I am hungry").

In Spanish, if the subject is a simple pronoun (such as "yo" or "ella"), it is often dropped from the sentence. So, you might just hear "soy" for "I am" or "van" for "they go".

In Latin America, the "vosotros" (2nd person plural) form is not generally used. In both Spain and Latin America, the "ustedes" form (3rd person plural) can be used as the equivalent of the plural "you" in English.

The "" form (2nd person singular) is used when speaking with people you are very familiar with, such as friends and family. For a more polite usage, use the "usted" form (3rd person singular). For example, someone speaking to their boss, or a child speaking to an adult who is not close family might say "usted es" instead of "tú eres".

Random Trivia

English used to also have a separate second person singular form - do you know what it is? It's something you might still hear today, though not very often. Yup, it's "thou", as in "thou art". Most other Indo-European languages still use the second person singular forms, and the English form of many verbs is similar to languages such as German ("thou hast" in English, "du hast" in German, "you have" today).

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